奥斯丁以降的法律实证主义

奥斯丁名言实证主义(史蒂夫奥斯汀经典名言)

1.史蒂夫奥斯汀经典名言

史蒂夫·奥斯汀(Stone Cold Steve Austin),美国WWE职业摔角手,同时他也是一名电影明星。

作品有《特遣部队》、《陌生人》、《敢死队》、《以暴制暴》等。You keep talkin' about getting screwed。

well son, I didn't bring a condom, but I did bring one great big can of whoop-ass!77 up, 3 down Stone Cold Steve Austin quotes I don't know where the hell you're going but you better give yourself to the lord, or someone, because your ass is mine!36 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Hunter Hearst is always eating his little caviar I'm fixing to open a can of whoop-ass and see how he likes the taste of that!32 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes I've traveled the world the last few years, Sometimes I think of home, and even Stone Cold has to fight the tears.28 up, 7 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Another car, bus, or plane takes me to far away places, But what I remember most is all the smiling faces.29 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Short people, tall people, people with glasses, The bottom line is I'll whip all your asses.54 up, 10 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes 。.. Authors > Ste Ste > Steve Austin1-10 Quotations of 22Steve Austin quotesPopularity: “If you ask me, it does amazingly well. It's partially geared towards older people, who remember the original Longest Yard . I've seen that movie six or eight times. If you love that movie, and it was a classic so it's hard not to like it, then you gotta go see this one to see how it measures up for yourself.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“We are very excited about TAG Entertainment's largest theatrical release to date,” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “not being driven nuts by a significant other always helps one's sanityand attitude. Trust me, of this I know what I speak.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“I think they're on to something, 。 They've really worked to try to make this an asset not only to Wilmore but to Jessamine County and the rest of the region.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“In the first quarter we were moving the ball well and were going to our strengths. But in the second quarter we had no concept of what we were doing. We were playing 'I' basketball instead of 'team' basketball.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “The greatest loss from bad debts occurs by waiting too long before starting the collections process. That is why so many companies are comparing collection agencies now so they are prepared to use them just as soon as problems hit in the weeks ahead.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“When a customer, client or patient fails to pay or falls behind on payments, the ability to collect your money decreases dramatically as time passes. Successful debt collections begin as early as possible. It is a good idea to have a collection agency lined up and ready to go, particularly if you can predict there will be a need in the weeks and months ahead.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “A common mistake most businesses make is to wait over six months to use a collection agency. They do this because they don't want to pay a high percentage or damage their hard earned reputation. There are reputable collection agencies that specialize in early intervention to assure that you are maximizing your collections and not leaving money on the table.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“If we can run our offense all the time like we did in the second half tonight, we're going to be a good team. We're still a young team in terms of varsity experience, but we are learning and growing.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “Yeah, but how long can we keep saying that? I told them (after last Saturday's loss to Memorial) that this is a turning point. 'Where do you want to go from here?' 。

We need to get a win to get some kind of momentum going, to make us believe we can win. I still think we're not that bad a team, but we've got to start believing and we've got to show more desire on defense than we showed in the first half (against Memorial).” Steve Austin quote。

2.史蒂夫奥斯汀经典名言

史蒂夫·奥斯汀(Stone Cold Steve Austin),美国WWE职业摔角手,同时他也是一名电影明星。

作品有《特遣部队》、《陌生人》、《敢死队》、《以暴制暴》等。You keep talkin' about getting screwed。

well son, I didn't bring a condom, but I did bring one great big can of whoop-ass!77 up, 3 down Stone Cold Steve Austin quotes I don't know where the hell you're going but you better give yourself to the lord, or someone, because your ass is mine!36 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Hunter Hearst is always eating his little caviar I'm fixing to open a can of whoop-ass and see how he likes the taste of that!32 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes I've traveled the world the last few years, Sometimes I think of home, and even Stone Cold has to fight the tears.28 up, 7 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Another car, bus, or plane takes me to far away places, But what I remember most is all the smiling faces.29 up, 4 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes Short people, tall people, people with glasses, The bottom line is I'll whip all your asses.54 up, 10 downStone Cold Steve Austin quotes 。.. Authors > Ste Ste > Steve Austin1-10 Quotations of 22Steve Austin quotesPopularity: “If you ask me, it does amazingly well. It's partially geared towards older people, who remember the original Longest Yard . I've seen that movie six or eight times. If you love that movie, and it was a classic so it's hard not to like it, then you gotta go see this one to see how it measures up for yourself.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“We are very excited about TAG Entertainment's largest theatrical release to date,” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “not being driven nuts by a significant other always helps one's sanityand attitude. Trust me, of this I know what I speak.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“I think they're on to something, 。 They've really worked to try to make this an asset not only to Wilmore but to Jessamine County and the rest of the region.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“In the first quarter we were moving the ball well and were going to our strengths. But in the second quarter we had no concept of what we were doing. We were playing 'I' basketball instead of 'team' basketball.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “The greatest loss from bad debts occurs by waiting too long before starting the collections process. That is why so many companies are comparing collection agencies now so they are prepared to use them just as soon as problems hit in the weeks ahead.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“When a customer, client or patient fails to pay or falls behind on payments, the ability to collect your money decreases dramatically as time passes. Successful debt collections begin as early as possible. It is a good idea to have a collection agency lined up and ready to go, particularly if you can predict there will be a need in the weeks and months ahead.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “A common mistake most businesses make is to wait over six months to use a collection agency. They do this because they don't want to pay a high percentage or damage their hard earned reputation. There are reputable collection agencies that specialize in early intervention to assure that you are maximizing your collections and not leaving money on the table.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。

“If we can run our offense all the time like we did in the second half tonight, we're going to be a good team. We're still a young team in terms of varsity experience, but we are learning and growing.” Steve Austin quoteAdd to Chapter。 “Yeah, but how long can we keep saying that? I told them (after last Saturday's loss to Memorial) that this is a turning point. 'Where do you want to go from here?' 。

We need to get a win to get some kind of momentum going, to make us believe we can win. I still think we're not that bad a team, but we've got to start believing and we've got to show more desire on defense than we showed in the first half (against Memorial).” Steve Austin quote。

3.实证主义的基本内容是什么

实证主义(positivism)是定量型社会科学研究的哲学基础。许多人们熟悉的社会科学理论和流派与实证主义一脉相承,如逻辑经验主义(logical empiricism)、自然主义和行为主义等,有人干脆认为它们是实证主义的代名词。

实证主义起源于十九世纪初叶奥古斯特·康德(Auguste Comte)创建的哲学流派。康德的《实证哲学教程》一书奠定了实证主义的理论基础,其中的许多原则一直沿用至今。此外,十九世纪法国著名社会学家埃米尔·涂尔干(Emile Durkheim)在他的《社会学方法准则》一书中更为详细地演绎了实证主义的原则和方法。(Durkheim, 1938) 该书被实证主义者奉为经典。

实证主义崇尚“客观的”研究,主张多用实验、调查、统计等技术和手段,用数字说话。他们积极寻找新的测量方法、建立新的测量工具,以便获取有关人和社会各个方面的数据和信息,用以检验假说、建立理论,或为实践服务。

在西方,实证研究的实用性很强。它在行政管理、计划、市场研究、项目评估等各个应用领域得到广泛应用。

实证主义认为,“科学的逻辑只有一种,一切有意成为科学的知识性活动都应遵循这一逻辑。”这就是说,社会科学和自然科学必须使用同样的方法。根据这一观点,自然科学和社会科学目前的差别不仅在于研究对象不同,还由于社会科学不够成熟因而不能使用同样的研究方法。然而所有称为科学的学科,除了研究对象的差异之外,最终都应遵循共同的原则和逻辑。

实证主义的主要内容可从八个方面来说明。

首先是科学究的目的。实证主义主张,科学研究的目的是为了发现自然法则,以便人们预测事件的发生、控制物质和社会环境。科学知识用来为人类服务,如改善人际关系,创造新的工作方法,预测新事物对社会的影响,等等。举例来说,人们可系统地探讨促进学生学习的种种因素(班级大小、教学形式、教师素质等),用理论指导研究,从实践中获取数据验证理论,然后再指导实践。实证主义者认为,科学的探索永无止境。

第二是有关社会现实的本质。实证主义认为,社会现实稳定有序,原本就存在模式和规律。这些模式和规律有待人们去发现。从社会现象中发现规律和法则就如同发现美洲新大陆。如果不承认这一假定、认为社会现实混乱无序、无规律可寻,那么预测和控制就不可能做到。

社会发展的总模式和总规律不会随时间而变化。虽然目前人们对它们还未全部认识,但科学家们正在对社会现实的各个方面逐个研究,逐步认识,最终将形成有关知识的整体画面。

第三是有关人的本性。实证主义认为,人受自我利益的驱使,追求快乐,但具有理性;人为外界的力量所左右,同一外因对所有的人都具有相同的效果。了解人的恰当方式是通过观察人的外部行为,而不是揣摩他们的内心世界。这种观点把人当作物,与行为主义的思想毫无二致。

实证主义认为,人的行为和社会习俗由外部的社会力量使然,并非由于个人的喜好。所谓自由意志只是神话。人世间的事物同样可用因果法则来解释。社会科学研究者象探索自然科学法则一样,正在努力寻找影响人们行为的社会力量。

必须指出,实证主义和极端的决定论(determinism)有区别,后者把人看作机器,完全由外力主宰。以实证主义的观点,有关人的因果法则是或然的,即对大多数人适用,或在许多情景中常见。研究者可以估算有关行为预期出现的概率。虽然社会科学的因果法则无法预测在某个情景中某个人具体的行为,但这类法则可以指出,在某某条件下,有百分之九十八的把握可以认定,有一半人会有什么样的行为。举例来说,研究者不能确定张三会买什么样的空调,但是,通过了解张三的其他消费习惯以及对空调市场的观察,研究者可按已知的法则推断,张三(以及类似张三的消费者)在百分之八十五(或九十、七十五等)的情况下会购买什么档次的空调。这就是说,人群中的消费模式是有定的。

第四个问题是科学和常理的关系。实证主义者认为科学和非科学之间有明显的界限。追求知识有许多途径,但科学显然优于其他途径。常理与科学接近,然而常理不严谨、不系统、逻辑性不强、还可能带有偏见。科学群体有特定的规范、严谨的态度和成熟的技术,因而能产生真正的知识,常理做不到这一点。

4.奥斯丁的法律理论框架与凯尔森的有什么联系

不同的法律观

正是基于以上两人所反对的自然法的不同,一个反对神学自然法;一个反对世俗自然法,所以才导致他们所需要完成的建立实证法学的使命的不同,由此我们才能够理解,为什么在同样主张“法律与道德”分离的基础上,他们会得出不同的法律观:奥斯丁是“命令论”,哈特是“规则论”。进而言之,在奥斯丁那里,他的视角是如何强调国家的地位、世俗的权威,如何为世俗政治秩序的合法性辩护,所以他在提出实证法学时,立足点是独立政治社会中的秩序的问题。“命令论”的提出恰好可以表明法律与政治国家之间的内在关系。所以,奥斯丁认为只要证明国家独立,法律的独立是不言而喻的,所以法律命令论阐明了法律与国家及政治社会的内在关系;相反,哈特致力于反对的是自然法学,尤其是富勒“内在道德”的自然法在实现正义和道德方面的不可能性的问题。所以他强调立足于法律,立足法律的结果当然是使在奥斯丁时代成为一个理论问题的“命令”要素退居幕后,从而哈特当然要重点研究代表法律本身独立性的规则。在哈特这里,国家这个问题已经转化为如何在现代社会中实施法律的问题。所以只要证明国家中法律的独立性,国家权威自然存在。而在那些极端和危机时刻,法律独立性是会发生动摇的,会损害国家基础的,比如对纳粹的审判时期。所以当哈特论证法律是一种规则性存在,并且在描述法律的基础上捍卫了法律之后,国家的权威自然成立。这就是他们在同样的实证主义立场上有着不同的侧重点的原因。如果这一分析正确,那么,当哈特认为实证主义的各个命题:命令论、规则论、分离论等是独立的,其中一个命题的损害不会影响别的命题时,我们完全可以认为这不过是一种辩护策略而已。从奥斯丁和哈特分别对自然法的攻击来看,他们各自所提出的命令论与规则论和“法律与道德”分离的命题之间有着内在而紧密的,甚至是必然的联系。只不过,当我们以贴标签的方式,将不同时代、不同语境、不同对手之下的这些命题放在一起是,命令论和规则论似乎才成为冲突的命题。其实他们不过是在不同背景下证明了实证法学对于法律本身独立性的追求,甚至可以说,这些命题所表达的其实是同样的意思。如果理解了其背景,它们并不矛盾。厘清了这一点,我们就可以转而具体讨论奥斯丁的命令论及其哈特对此的批判了。

5.实证主义的基本特征

实证主义的基本特征:将哲学的任务归结为现象研究,以现象论观点为出发点,拒绝通过理性把握感觉材料,认为通过对现象的归纳就可以得到科学定律。它把处理哲学与科学的关系作为其理论的中心问题,并力图将哲学溶解于科学之中。

实证主义的影响:实证主义不仅对哲学而且对整个社会科学均发生了深刻影响,孔德所创立的实证主义社会学,在其后的一个半世纪是西方社会学的主流。

实证主义是一种哲学思想。广义而言,任何种类的哲学体系,只要囿于经验材料、拒绝先验或形而上学的思辨,都为实证主义。

狭义而言,实证主义则指法国哲学家孔德(Auguste Comte)的哲学。这条目内主要介绍狭义的实证主义。

孔德生长的时代,正是一个宣扬理性主义及科学思想发端的时代,在“科学万能”思想的冲击下,人们对形而上学产生怀疑,逐渐以注重经验的科学方法观察、研究事物,探求事实的本原和变化的现象。

奥斯丁名言实证主义

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